1. Smith S.T., Chetwynd D.G. and Bowen D.K., 1987, Design and assessment of monolithic high precision translation mechanisms, J. Phys. E, 20, 977-983.


2. Lindsey K., Smith S.T. and Robbie C.J., 1988, Sub-nanometer surface texture and profile measurement with ‘Nanosurf 2’, Annals of the CIRP, 37, 519-522.


3. Smith S.T., 1990, The machining of silicon with high speed miniature diamond cutters, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 23, 607-616

4. Smith S.T. and Chetwynd D.G, 1990, Optimisation of a magnet/coil force actuator and its application to linear spring mechanisms, Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs., 204(C4), 243-253

5. Bowen D.K., Chetwynd D.G., Schwarzenberger D.R and Smith S.T., 1990, Sub-nanometer transducer characterisation by x-ray interferometry, Precision Engineering, 12(3), 165-171


6. Chetwynd D.G., Cockerton S.C., Smith S.T. and Fung W.W., 1991, The design and operation of monolithic x-ray interferometers for super precision metrology, Nanotechnology, 2(1), 1-10.

7. Chetwynd D.G. and Smith S.T., 1991, High precision surface profilometry: From stylus to STM, in From Instruments to Nanotechnology, ed. Gardner J.W. and Hingle H.T., Gordon and Breach, London, 273-300.

8. Smith S.T., 1991, Nanoactuators for controlled displacements, in From Instruments to Nanotechnolgy ed. Gardner J.W. and Hingle H.T., Gordon and Breach, London, 301-319.

9. Smith S.T., Chetwynd D.G. and Bowen D.K., 1991, Calibration of height measuring probes, SPIE, 1573, 225-236

10. Smith S.T., Chetwynd D.G. and Jackson D., 1991, Manufacture of large scale devices in single crystal silicon by high speed grinding, SPIE, 1573, 53-61


11. Smith S.T. and Liu X., 1992, A profilometer for surface proximity probe applications, Nanotechnology, 3, 37-41

12. Chetwynd D.G., Liu X. and Smith S.T., 1992, Signal fidelity and tracking force in stylus profilometry, Int. J. Mach. Tools & Manuf., 32(1/2), 239-245.

13. Harb S., Smith S.T. and Chetwynd D.G., 1992, Subnanometer behaviour of a capacitive feedback, piezoelectric displacement actuator, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 63(2), 1680-1689.

14. Smith S.T., Harb S. and Chetwynd D.G., 1992, Tribological properties of polymeric bearings at the nanometer level, J. Phys. D., 25(1A), 240-248.

15. Liu X., Smith S.T. and Chetwynd D.G., 1992, The friction between a diamond stylus and a surface at low load, Wear, 157, 279-294.

16. Howard L.P. and Smith S.T., 1992, Long range constant force profiling for measurement of engineering surfaces, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 63(10), 4289-4295.

17. Schindel D.W., Hutchins D.A. and Smith S.T., 1992, A study of materials at high temperature using miniaturized resonant tuning forks, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 92(4), 2314A


18. Smith S.T., Harb S., Eastwick-Field V., Yao Z.Q., Bartlett P.N., Chetwynd D.G. and Gardner J.W., 1993, Tribological properties of electroactive polymeric thin film bearings, Wear, 169, 43-57

19. Liu X., Chetwynd D.G., Smith S.T. and W. Wang, 1993, Improvement of stylus measurement fidelity by active damping control, Meas. Sci. Technol., 4(12), 1330-1340

20. Liu X., Smith S.T. and Chetwynd D.G., 1993, Long range tunnelling profilometry, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 64(11), 3161-3168.

21. Chetwynd D.G., Harb S., Krylova N. and Smith S.T., 1993, Extended range monolithic x-ray interferometric calibrators, Nanotechnology, 4(4), 183-193


22. Howard L.P. and Smith S.T., 1994, A metrological constant force profiler, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 65(4), 892-902.

23. Smith S.T. and Howard L.P., 1994, A precision, low force balance and its application to atomic force probe characterisation, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 65(4), 903-909.

24. Smith S.T., Chetwynd D.G. and Harb S., 1994, A simple two-axis ultraprecision actuator, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 65(4), 910-917.

25. Daniels A.M., Smith S.T. and Lewis M.H., 1994, A scanning electron microscope based hardness indentation tester, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 65(3), 632-638

26. Schindel D.W., Hutchins D.A., Smith S.T. and Farahbakhsh B., 1994, High-temperature pulsed photoacoustic studies of surface waves on solids, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 95(5), 2517-2524.

27. Gardner J.W., Chetwynd D.G., Smith S.T., Harb S.M., Yao Z.Q., Bartlett P.N. and Eastwick-Field V., 1994, Electropolymerized films for low friction microactuator bearings, Sensors and Actuators, A41, 300-304


28. Xu Y. and Smith S.T., 1995, Squeeze film damping of a cantilever beam with a concentrated mass on the free end, Precision Engineering, 17(2), 94-100.

29. Badami V. G., Hefner S. and Smith S.T., 1995, Wavelet analysis for the assessment of localized spectral variations in surface topographic data, ASME DE84(1) Design and Engineering Technical conferences, 3(A), 1381-1385

30. Smith S.T., 1995, Miniature nanoactuators, in Advances in Actuators, ed. Dorey A.P. and Moore J.H., Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, Chapter 6, 112-134


31. Miller J.A., Hocken R.J., Smith S.T. and Harb S., 1996, X-ray calibrated tunneling system with a thermally stable nanometer positioner, Precision Engineering, 18(2/3), 95-102

32. Xu Y. Smith S.T. and Atherton P.D.,  1996, A metrological scanning force microscope, Precision Engineering., 19(1), 46-55

33. Badami V.G., Smith S.T., Raja J. and Hocken R.J., 1996, Design of a three dimensional surface profiler, Precision Engineering., 18(2/3), 147-156

34. S.T. Smith, 1996, Displacement calibration using x-ray interferometry, in Procedures in Scanning Probe Microscopies, ed. R. Colton et al., J. Wiley and Sons.

35. Montiero A.F., Smith S.T. and Chetwynd D.G., 1996, A super-precision linear slideway with angular correction in three axes, Nanotechnology, 7(1), 27-36

36. Chetwynd D.G., Krylova N.O. and Smith S.T., 1996, Metrological x-ray interferometry in the micrometer region, Nanotechnology, 7(1), 1-12

37. Chetwynd D. G., Liu X. and Smith S.T., 1996, Controlled force stylus displacement sensor, Precision Engineering, 19(2-3), 105-111


38. Smith S. T., Badami V. G., Dale J. S. and Xu Y., 1997, Elliptical flexure hinges, Rev. Sci. Instrum, 68(3), 1474-1483

39. Schindel D.W., Hutchins D.A. and Smith S. T., 1997, A study of materials at high temperature using miniaturized resonant tuning forks and noncontact capacitance transducers, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 102(3), 1296 – 1309.

40. Abdel-Aal H.A., Smith S.T. and Patten J.A., 1997, On the development of surface temperatures in precision single-point diamond abrasion of semiconductors, Int. Comms. in Heat and Mass Transfer, 24(8), 1131 – 1140


41. Vidic M., Harb S. M. and Smith S.T., 1998, Observations of contact measurements using a resonance based touch sensor, Precision Engineering, 22(1), 19-36.

42. Abdel-Aal H.A., Smith S.T., 1998, On friction-induced temperatures of rubbing metallic pairs with temperature dependent thermal properties, Wear216, 41-59

43. H. A. Abdel-Aal and S.T. Smith, 1998, Thermal compatibility of metallic pairs in sliding contact, Int. Comms. in Heat and Mass Transfer, 25(5), 599-608

44. Liu X., Chetwynd D.G., Gardner J.W., Smith S.T., Bartlett P.N. and Beriet C., 1998, Measurements of tribological properties of polypyrrole thin film bearings, Tribology International, 31(6), 313 – 323.


45. Son Phan, Keanini R.G., Smith S.T. and Hocken R.J., 1999, Resonance based force measurement: prelude to high-resolution anemometry for liquid metal flows, Proceedings of the ASME: Heat Transfer Division, 364(4), 3-13.


46. Dogaru T. and Smith S.T., 2000, Detection of cracks near sharp edges using a GMR eddy current sensor, SPIE, 3994, 2111-2116.

47. Dogaru T. and Smith S.T., 2000, Edge crack detection using a giant magnetoresistance based eddy current sensor, NDT and E, 16, 31-53.

48. Keanini R., Son Phan, Smith S.T. and Hocken R.J., 2000, Resonance based pressure measurement and anemometry for high temperature flows: Design principles and preliminary results, Int. Comm. Heat Mass Transfer, 27(2), 273 – 284.


49. Dogaru T. and Smith S.T., 2001, A GMR based, eddy-current sensor, IEEE Trans. On Magnetics, 37(5), 3831-3838.

50. Dogaru T., Smith C.H., Schneider R.W. and Smith S.T., 2001, New directions in eddy current sensing technology, Sensors Magazine, 18(6), 52-56.


51. Phan J.V., Hocken R.J., Smith S.T. and Keanini R.G., 2002, Simultaneous measurement of spatially separated forces using a dual-cantilever resonance-based touch sensor, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 73(2), 318 – 322.

52. Seugling R.M., LeBrun T, Smith S.T., Howard L.P., 2002, A six degree-of-freedom precision motion stage, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 73(6), 2462 – 2468.

53. Chen K. –S., Trumper D.L. and Smith S.T., 2002, Design and control for an electro-magnetically driven XYq stage, Precision Engineering, 26(4), 355 – 369.


54. S.C. Woody and S.T. Smith, 2003,  A vector touch sensor probe: An experimental study, Precision Engineering, 27(3), 221 – 233.

55. Smith C.H., Schneider R.W., Dogaru T., and Smith S.T., 2003, GMR magnetic sensor arrays for NDE eddy current sensing, Rev. Prog. In Quantitative NDE, 22, 419 – 426.


56. Woody S.C. and Smith S.T., 2004, Performance comparison and modeling of PZN, PMN and PZT stacked actuators in a levered flexure mechanism, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 75(4), 842 – 848.

57. Smith C.H., Schneider R.W., Dogaru T., and Smith S.T., 2004, Eddy current testing with GMR magnetic sensor arrays, Rev. Prog. In Quantitative NDE, 23, 406 – 413, ISBN 0-7354-0173-X.

58. Dogaru T., Smith C.H., Schneider R.W., and Smith S.T., 2004, Layered structures using GMR-based eddy current probes, Rev. Prog. In Quantitative NDE, 23, 398 – 405, ISBN 0-7354-0173-X.

59. Jain P., Woody S.C. and Smith S.T., 2004, Dynamic precision with embeddable DSP’s, Sensors Magazine, 21(7), 1– 8.


60. Woody S.C., Smith S.T., Rehrig P.W. and Xiaoning J., 2005, Performance of single crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-32%PbTiO3 stacked actuators with application to adaptive structures, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 075112 (8 pages).

61. Woody S.C. and Smith S.T., 2005, Steering mirror design and dynamic controls for a dual-actuation platform using high-strain actuators, Proc. AIAA, (21 pages).

62. Bauza M., Woody S.C., Hocken R.J, and Smith S.T., 2005, Development of a virtual probe tip with an application to high aspect ratio microscale features, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76(9), 095112(8 pages).

Also selected for publication in the Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, October, 2005, see


63. Buice E.S., Yang H., Seugling R.M., Smith S.T. and Hocken R.J., 2005, Evaluation of a novel UHMWPE bearing for applications in precision slideways, Precision Engineering, 30, 185-191.

64. Bauza M., Woody S.C., Smith S.T. and Hocken R.J., 2006, Development of a rapid profilometer with an application to roundness gauging, Precision Engineering, 30(4), 406 – 413.

65. Smith S.T. and Seugling R.M., 2006, Review paper: Sensor and actuator considerations for precision, small machines, Precision Engineering, 30(3). 245 – 264.

66. Woody S.C. and Smith S.T., 2006, Damping of a thin-walled honeycomb structure using energy absorbing foam,  J. Sound and Vibration, 291, 491-502.

67. Woody S.C. and Smith S.T., 2006, Design and performance of a dual drive system for tip-tilt control of a 300 mm mirror, Mechatronics, 389 – 397.


68. Woody S.C., Bauza M., Smith S.T. and Thompson M., 2008,  Single and multi-sine DFT with an application to precision capacitive sensors, Precision Engineering, 32(2), 79 – 87.

69. Ellis J.D., Smith S.T. and Hocken R.J., 2008, Alignment uncertainties in ideal indentation styli, Precision Engineering, 32(2), 207 – 214.

70. Liu X., Yue Z., Cai Z., Chetwynd D.G. and Smith S.T., 2008,  Quantifying touch-feel perception: Tribological aspects, Meas. Sci. Technol., 19, 084007 (9 pages).

72. Woody S.C., Nowakowski B., Bauza M. and Smith S.T., 2008, Standing wave probes for micro-assembly, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 79, 085107 (9 pages).


73. Nowakowski B., Smith S.T., Mullany B.A. and Woody S.C., 2009, Vortex Machining: Localized surface modification using an oscillating fiber probe, Machining science and technology, 13(4), 561 – 570.

74. Lin F., Elliott K.E., Parker W., Chakraborty, N., Teo C-S., Smith S.T., Elliott G.E., Moyer P.J., 2009, Confocal and force probe imaging system for simultaneous three dimensional optical and mechanical spectroscopic evaluation of biological samples, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 80(5), 055110 (7 pages). Also selected for publication in the Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, 19(23), 2009. and the Virtual Journal of Biophysics Research17(11), 2009 .

75. Buice E.S., Otten D., Yang H., Smith S.T. Hocken R.J. and Trumper D.L., 2009, Design evaluation of a single axis, precision controlled positioning stage, Precision Engineering, 33, 418 – 424.


76. Moyer P.J., Parker W.P., Lin F and Smith.S.T., 2010, High-resolution intracellular viscosity measurement using time-dependent fluorescence anisotropy, Optics Express, 18(16), 16608 – 16617. Also in Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics, 5(12).


77. Lin F., Smith S.T. and Ghazanfar H., 2011, Knife edge position transducer performance studies, Precision Engineering, submitted.

78. Bauza M.B., Woody S.C., Woody B.A. and Smith S.T., 2011, Surface profilometry of high aspect ratio features, Wear, 271, 519 – 522.

79. Nowakowski B., Smith S.T., Pratt J., Shaw G. and Strayhorn R., 2011, Electrolysis for precision mass removal, Rev. Sci. Instrum., to be cleared at NIST prior to submission.